Further Reading

Useful Videos:

Plastic Soup:

The convenience of plastic comes with a price. We are very proud to support the film ‘Plastic Soup’ which raises awareness of the single-use plastics epidemic in Hong Kong. Take a look at the beautiful film by Desiree Ho, Becky Baker and a group of students.

Plastic Ocean:

Plastic - both a wonderful invention and a scourge on our planet. Over 300 million tons will be produced this year. Most is never recycled and remains on our land and in our seas forever. Our story shows the damage to all creatures who depend on the ocean for their food – from birds… to us. 

This is an adaptation from the original documentary “A Plastic Ocean” by the Plastic Oceans Foundation

How We Can Keep Plastics Out of Our Ocean | National Geographic

Plastic poses one of the biggest known threats to the ocean, influencing all ecosystems from beautiful coral reefs to abyssal trenches, eventually accumulating in our own food. Learn more about how to end the current system of produce-use-discard, and transition to a system which promotes reuse and repurposing plastics.  

Published by the National Geographic

What really happens to the plastic you throw away - Emma Bryce

We’ve all been told that we should recycle plastic bottles and containers. But what actually happens to the plastic if we just throw it away? Emma Bryce traces the life cycles of three different plastic bottles, shedding light on the dangers these disposables present to our world. Lesson by Emma Bryce, animation by Sharon Colman.

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/what-really...

Further Reading:

China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). Annual Report on Comprehensive Utilization of Resources. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.ndrc.gov.cn/xwzx/xwfb/201410/t20141009_628793.html


D. Hoornweg, P. Bhada-Tata, “What a waste: A global review of solid waste management” (The World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012). https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/17388


Geyer, R., Jambeck, J., & Law, K. (2017). Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made. Science Advances, 3(7), e1700782. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1700782


Ishigaki, T., Sugano, W., Nakanishi, A., Tateda, M., Ike, M., & Fujita, M. (2004). The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors. Chemosphere, 54(3), 225-233. doi: 10.1016/s0045-6535(03)00750-1


Jambeck, J., Geyer, R., Wilcox, C., Siegler, T., Perryman, M., & Andrady, A. et al. (2015). Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, 347(6223), 768-771. doi: 10.1126/science.1260352


Kale, G., Kijchavengkul, T., Auras, R., Rubino, M., Selke, S., & Singh, S. (2007). Compostability of Bioplastic Packaging Materials: An Overview. Macromolecular Bioscience, 7(3), 255-277. doi: 10.1002/mabi.200600168


Karami, A., Golieskardi, A., Choo, C., Larat, V., Galloway, T. and Salamatinia, B. (2017). Corrigendum: The presence of microplastics in commercial salts from different countries. Scientific Reports, 7, p.46838.


Kubowicz, S., & Booth, A. (2017). Biodegradability of Plastics: Challenges and Misconceptions. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(21), 12058-12060. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b04051


Kühn S, Bravo Rebolledo E L and van Franeker J A 2015 Deleterious Effects of Litter on Marine Life Deleterious Effects of Litter on Marine Life ed M Bergmann et al (Berlin: Springer) pp 75–116


Lebreton, L., Slat, B., Ferrari, F., Sainte-Rose, B., Aitken, J., & Marthouse, R. et al. (2018). Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly accumulating plastic. Scientific Reports, 8(1). doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22939-w


McDermid, K., & McMullen, T. (2004). Quantitative analysis of small-plastic debris on beaches in the Hawaiian archipelago. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48(7-8), 790-794. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2003.10.017


McIntosh, R., Kirkwood, R., Sutherland, D., & Dann, P. (2015). Drivers and annual estimates of marine wildlife entanglement rates: A long-term case study with Australian fur seals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101(2), 716-725. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.10.007


Moore, C., Moore, S., Leecaster, M., & Weisberg, S. (2001). A Comparison of Plastic and Plankton in the North Pacific Central Gyre. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42(12), 1297-1300. doi: 10.1016/s0025-326x(01)00114-x


North, E., & Halden, R. (2013). Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead. Reviews On Environmental Health, 28(1), 1-8. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2012-0030


Peeken, I., Primpke, S., Beyer, B., Gütermann, J., Katlein, C., Krumpen, T., Bergmann, M., Hehemann, L. and Gerdts, G. (2018). Arctic sea ice is an important temporal sink and means of transport for microplastic. Nature Communications, 9(1).


Plastic Europe. (2017). PlasticsEurope, Plastics—The Facts 2016: An Analysis of European Plastics Production, Demand and Waste Data. Belgium.


Problems & Solutions | Environmental Protection Department. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/waste/prob_solutions/WFdev_OWTF.html


Readfearn, G. (2018). WHO launches health review after microplastics found in 90% of bottled water. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/mar/15/microplastics-found-in-more-than-90-of-bottled-water-study-says


Simmonds, M. (2012). Cetaceans and Marine Debris: The Great Unknown. Journal Of Marine Biology, 2012, 1-8. doi: 10.1155/2012/684279


Teuten E. L., et al. 2009 Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 364, 2027–2045.


Thomas, N., Clarke, J., McLauchlin, A., & Patrick, S. (2010). Assessing the environmental impacts of oxy-degradable plastics across their life cycle. Retrieved from http://sciencesearch.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Menu=Menu&Module=More&Location=None&Completed=0&ProjectID=16263


The impact of microplastics on food safety: the case of fishery and aquaculture products  | GLOBEFISH | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/in-action/globefish/fishery-information/resource-detail/en/c/1046435/


Van Cauwenberghe, L., & Janssen, C. (2014). Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption. Environmental Pollution, 193, 65-70. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.06.010

Wilcox, C., Van Sebille, E., & Hardesty, B. (2015). Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 112(38), 11899-11904. doi: 10.1073/pnas.150210811212


Yang, D., Shi, H., Li, L., Li, J., Jabeen, K., & Kolandhasamy, P. (2015). Microplastic Pollution in Table Salts from China. Environmental Science & Technology, 49(22), 13622-13627. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b03163